[44], In June 2018, the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) motioned to reschedule alkyl nitrites to be in the same category as heroin and cocaine (Schedule 9). [49] Banning alkyl nitrites was not considered acceptable as their use was said to help reduce harms such as anal injury and blood-borne disease transmission during anal sex. J Nutraceut 2000;2(3):25-32. C-phycocyanin, a very potent and novel platelet aggregation inhibitor from Spirulina platensis. Effects of a Spirulina-based dietary supplement on cytokine production from allergic rhinitis patients. License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO. juice, [51], Since 2007, reformulated poppers containing isopropyl nitrite are sold in Europe; isobutyl nitrite is prohibited. Rev.Epidemiol.Sante Publique 2008;56(6):425-431. A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study to establish the effects of spirulina in elderly Koreans. Karkos, P. D., Leong, S. C., Arya, A. K., Papouliakos, S. M., Apostolidou, M. T., and Issing, W. J. View abstract. Am J Gastroenterol 2002;97:3212-13. Effects of spirulina (Spirulina platensis) on dietary hypercholesterolemia in rats. What factors influenced or will influence your purchase? AFA, Algae, Algas Verdiazul, Algues Bleu-Vert, Algues Bleu-Vert du Lac Klamath, Anabaena, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, Arthrospira maxima, Arthrospira platensis, BGA, Blue Green Algae, Blue-Green Micro-Algae, Cyanobacteria, Cyanobactérie, Cyanophycée, Dihe, Espirulina, Hawaiian Spirulina, Klamath, Klamath Lake Algae, Lyngbya wollei, Microcystis aeruginosa, Microcystis wesenbergii, Nostoc ellipsosporum, Spirulina Blue-Green Algae, Spirulina Fusiformis, Spirulina maxima, Spirulina platensis, Spirulina pacifica, Spiruline, Spiruline d’Hawaii, Tecuitlatl. Nutr Cancer 1988;11(2):127-134. Arch Dermatol 2004;140:723-7. 1st ed. Use of any drug always carries some risk. Favorable effects of blue-green algae Aphanizomenon flos-aquae on rat plasma lipids. [59] On 20 January 2016 a motion to exempt poppers (alkyl nitrites) from this legislation was defeated. Studies on the long-term effect of spirulina supplementation on serum lipid profile and glycated proteins in NIDDM patients. diarrhoea, Lik.Sprava. Class specific influence of dietary Spirulina platensis on antibody production in mice. Microbiol.Res 5-11-2007; View abstract. Le TM, Knulst AC, Röckmann H. Anaphylaxis to Spirulina confirmed by skin prick test with ingredients of Spirulina tablets. Call an ambulance straight away by dialling triple zero (000) if you have any of these symptoms (ambulance officers don’t need to involve the police): Little is known about the long-term effects of GHB use. Rzymski P, Niedzielski P, Kaczmarek N, Jurczak T, Klimaszyk P. The multidisciplinary approach to safety and toxicity assessment of microalgae-based food supplements following clinical cases of poisoning. Some early research shows that taking blue-green algae by mouth reduces infections, stomach and intestinal problems, feelings of tiredness, and breathing problems in patients with HIV/AIDS. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2016;67(2):203-6. [12] The term extended to the drug in any form as well as to other drugs with similar effects, e.g. Konno, T., Umeda, Y., Umeda, M., Kawachi, I., Oyake, M., and Fujita, N. [A case of inflammatory myopathy with widely skin rash following use of supplements containing Spirulina]. Early research shows that taking blue-green algae by mouth might improve cholesterol levels by a small amount. Nutr Report Internat 1986;33(4):565-74. [20], Alkyl nitrites interact with other vasodilators, such as sildenafil (Viagra), vardenafil (Levitra), and tadalafil (Cialis), to cause a serious decrease in blood pressure, which can cause strokes, and low blood pressure leading to fainting.[21]. dizziness, Effects of dietary Spirulina on vascular reactivity.J.Med.Food 2009;12:15-20. View abstract. Gilroy DJ, Kauffman KW, Hall RA, et al. Effects of Spirulina supplementation on obesity: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Johnson PE and Shubert LE. Thèse de doctorat en médecine.Toulouse-3 université Paul-Sabatier 1990;Thèse de doctorat en médecine. Moulis, G., Batz, A., Durrieu, G., Viard, C., Decramer, S., and Montastruc, J. L. Severe neonatal hypercalcemia related to maternal exposure to nutritional supplement containing Spirulina. Food Funct 2018;9(12):6165-78. doi: 10.1039/c8fo02037j. Cingi C, Conk-Dalay M, Cakli H, Bal C. The effects of spirulina on allergic rhinitis. Early research on the use of blue-green algae in combination with other dietary treatments for malnutrition in infants and children shows conflicting results. [3] The drug is also used for recreational drug purposes, typically for the "high" or "rush" that the drug can create. (2011). pii: E364. [24], Swallowing poppers (rather than inhaling the vapour) may cause cyanosis, Methemoglobinemia , unconsciousness, coma, and complications leading to death. Sudden withdrawal from high doses can result in bowel and bladder incontinence and blackouts.5. Tics or twitching of the eyelids (blepharospasm). Allergy 2010;65(7):924-5. J Food Sci Technol 1996;33(2):124-8. Effect of Arthrospira (Spirulina) maxima supplementation and a systematic physical exercise program on the body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness of overweight or obese subjects: a double-blind, randomized, and crossover controlled trial. [56][57], In the United Kingdom, poppers are sold in nightclubs, bars, sex shops, drug paraphernalia head shops, over the Internet, and in markets. GHB (gamma hydroxybutyrate) is a depressant, which means it slows down the messages travelling between the brain and the body. Nutrit Repor Internat 1988;37(6):1329-1337. Ayehunie, S., Belay, A., Baba, T. W., and Ruprecht, R. M. Inhibition of HIV-1 replication by an aqueous extract of Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis). Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of C-phycocyanin from blue-green algae. JANA 2000;2:59-65. Julien, R., Advokat, C., & Comaty, J. Vitale S, Miller NR, Mejico LJ, et al. [7] Brunton reasoned that the angina sufferer's pain and discomfort could be reduced by administering amyl nitrite—to dilate the coronary arteries of patients, thus improving blood flow to the heart muscle. Med Afr Noire 1999;46:143-146. Vidé J, Bonafos B, Fouret G, et al. gina, Karkos PD, Leong SC, Karkos CD, et al. View abstract. Marcel, A. K., Ekali, L. G., Eugene, S., Arnold, O. E., Sandrine, E. D., von der, Weid D., Gbaguidi, E., Ngogang, J., and Mbanya, J. C. The effect of Spirulina platensis versus soybean on insulin resistance in HIV-infected patients: a randomized pilot study. Hillebrand, J., Olszewski, D. & Sedefov, R. (2008). cherry meth, Uncontrolled Blood Sugar: How Dangerous Is It? Becker EW, Jakober B, Luft D, et al. View abstract. Emergency Medicine: Principles and Practice. Mani UV, Desai S, and Iyer U. View abstract. blue juice. Nakaya N, Homma Y, Goto Y. Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol 1988;24(5):839-850. Majdoub H, Ben Mansour M, Chaubet F, et al. However, another study shows that taking blue-green algae worsens liver function in people with hepatitis C or hepatitis B. HIV/AIDS. 'Complementary ENT': a systematic review of commonly used supplements. Toxins (Basel) 2017;9(3). A final decision was pushed back from 29 November 2018 to late January or early February 2019 for further consultation with the public. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2008;265:1219-23. liquid e, Genazzani AD, Chierchia E, Lanzoni C, et al. Toxic algae in lake Sammamish. View abstract. Hernández-Lepe MA, López-Díaz JA, Juárez-Oropeza MA, et al. (Tokyo) 1990;36(2):165-171. [6] Sir Thomas Lauder Brunton, a Scottish physician born in the year of amyl nitrite's first synthesis, documented its clinical use to treat angina pectoris in 1867 when patients experiencing chest pains would experience complete relief after inhalation. GBL (gamma butyrolactone) and 1,4-BD (1,4-butanediol) are chemicals that are closely related to GHB. Weight gain was seen in undernourished children who were given spirulina blue-green algae with a combination of millet, soy and peanut for 8 weeks. The following table summarizes alkyl nitrite chemical and physical properties, including chemical structure:[16]. View abstract. 2009;69(1):66-70. Hayashi O, Katoh T, Okuwaki Y. Enhancement of antibody production in mice by dietary Spirulina platensis. The ejaculate that a man produces when he masturbates because he is sad. 2012;68(2):221-222. Diabetes. Microbiol Rev 1983;47(4):551-78. Yakoot, M. and Salem, A. Spirulina platensis versus silymarin in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Giving up GHB after using it for a long time is challenging because the body has to get used to functioning without it. (check all that apply). Iwasa M, Yamamoto M, Tanaka Y, et al. One study shows that taking blue-green algae by mouth results in greater improvements in liver function compared to milk thistle in adults with hepatitis C who were not yet treated or were unresponsive to other treatments. View abstract. [55], The possession in Germany, Austria and Switzerland is not subject to any regulations regarding anesthetic drugs and is therefore legal; however, the purchase, sale or trade of amyl nitrite without permission violates the drug laws of the corresponding countries. A natural sulfated polysaccharide, calcium spirulan, isolated from Spirulina platensis: in vitro and ex vivo evaluation of anti-herpes simplex virus and anti-human immunodeficiency virus activities. Spirulina in clinical practice: evidence-based human applications. Characterization of Spirulina biomass for CELSS diet potential. Minerva Ginecol 2010;62:381-8. J Laryngol.Otol. Kalafati M, Jamurtas AZ, Nikolaidis MG, et al. View abstract. (2014). Kim HM, Lee EH, Cho HH, Moon YH. Ergogenic and antioxidant effects of spirulina supplementation in humans. J Ag Food Chem 1999;47(11):4736-41. View abstract. J Nutr 1997;2:379. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2010;42:142-51. 2009;79(2):117-123. Early research shows that taking blue-green algae does not reduce eyelid spasms in people with blepharospasm. Galloway, G., Frederick, S., Staggers, F., Gonzales, M., Stalcup, S. & Smith, D. (1997). Mechanisms involved in the antiplatelet effect of C-phycocyanin. Sign Up to Receive Our Free Coroanvirus Newsletter. Depending on the … View abstract. All rights reserved. Efficacy of spirulina extract plus zinc in patients of chronic arsenic poisoning: a randomized placebo-controlled study. The Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs noted in 2011 that poppers, rather than being psychoactive substance or 'legal high', "appear to fall within the scope of The Intoxicating Substances (Supply) Act 1985". You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you. BMC Complement Altern Med 2017;17(1):225. Nutrients. Popper use has a relaxation effect on involuntary smooth muscles, such as those in the throat and anus. View abstract. View abstract. Food Chem Toxicol 2014;74:309-10. Jensen GS, Ginsberg DJ, Huerta P, et al. Habou H, Degbey H Hamadou B. Évaluation de l'efficacité de la supplémentation en spiruline du régime habituel des enfants atteints de malnutrition proteinoénergétique sévère (à propos de 56 cas).

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