i.e., most hands-on activities are part of lessons, lessons are grouped into multiday How they think engineers and scientists measure earthquake damage? A variety of hazards result from natural processes (e.g., earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions).

This table gives MMIs that are typically observed at locations near the epicenter of the earthquake. [7] This became known as the "Mercalli–Cancani scale, formulated by Sieberg", or the "Mercalli–Cancani–Sieberg scale", or simply "MCS",[8] and used extensively in Europe. [20][23] The colors and descriptive names shown here differ from those used on certain shake maps in other articles. Italian volcanologist Giuseppe Mercalli formulated his first intensity scale in 1883.

[2] It had six degrees or categories, has been described as "merely an adaptation" of the then standard Rossi–Forel scale of 10 degrees, and is now "more or less forgotten". Ask the students: With Words and Pictures: Have students write a sentence on the bottom of each page of their information booklet describing their illustration of the Mercalli Scale rating. Students learn about the types of seismic waves produced by earthquakes and how they move through the Earth. Are there any suggestions for improvement? Understand the difference between the Richter Scale and the Mercalli Scale for rating earthquakes (a scale that uses instruments and a scale that uses human observation, respectively). Solicit, integrate and summarize student responses. Thanks for your feedback! Can you think of any examples?

Standing motor cars may rock slightly. It is known today as the Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale. The Mercalli Scale uses human observation to assess damage from an earthquake, while a Richter Scale uses instruments to measure how much force an earthquake produces, or the size of its waves. Instruct students to illustrate each page to describe the destruction of each level of earthquake based on the 12 point Mercalli Scale. Giant Wave Characteristics and Causes, Survive That Tsunami! Even sports teams have different levels to make sure that teams with the same ability play each other. Most curricular materials in TeachEngineering are hierarchically organized; A low intensity earthquake, one in which only some people feel the vibration and there is no significant property damage, is rated as a II. While shaking is caused by the seismic energy released by an earthquake, earthquakes differ in how much of their energy is radiated as seismic waves. Earth slumps and land slips in soft ground. Today, we are going to look at the Mercalli Scale's damage rating and create a booklet to help inform citizens of potential danger. Damage is considerable in specially designed structures; well-designed frame structures are thrown out of plumb. Explain the Mercalli Scale on their own through drawing and writing. Liquefaction occurs. Underground pipelines are rendered completely out of service. Cut all necessary paper needed for the class activity. Do you agree with this alignment? [16] Also, construction codes and methods have evolved, making much of built environment stronger; these make a given intensity of ground shaking seem weaker. It is known today as the Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale. Thanks for your feedback! Using a deck of cards or by calling random numbers between 1 and 12, have the students show their drawing of what would happen during an earthquake with that Mercalli rating. [9] Some seismologists refer to this version the "Wood–Neumann scale". a project of D2L (www.achievementstandards.org). Tell students to draw a picture having to do with an earthquake or the Mercalli Scale. Intensity scales empirically categorize the intensity of shaking based on the effects reported by untrained observers and are adapted for the effects that might be observed in a particular region. Dozens of so-called intensity-prediction equations[24] have been published to estimate the macroseismic intensity at a location given the magnitude, source-to-site distance, and perhaps other parameters (e.g. We sometimes assign points to a homework assignment to rate how well we did. It describes the damage left by an earthquake, not the actual force of the earthquake. From the modeling we see that weak effects of Degree III on the Mercalli Scale are perceptible up to 172 km away from the epicenter, and the stronger effects of V Degree are contained within a radius of 56 km . The expendable cost is the estimated cost of supplies needed for each group of students involved in the activity. Damage slight in specially designed structures; considerable damage in ordinary substantial buildings with partial collapse.

Unstable objects are overturned. Richter scale ratings are determined soon after an earthquake, once scientists can compare the data from different seismograph stations.

(Answer: the damage left by an earthquake) Today we will learn more about this scale. [20], The correlation between magnitude and intensity is far from total, depending upon several factors, including the depth of the hypocenter, terrain, and distance from the epicenter. Damage is total. "Mercalli" redirects here. Class Discussion: As a class, have students engage in open discussion. Few, if any, (masonry) structures remain standing. Lesson. Related Curriculum shows how the document you are currently viewing fits into this hierarchy of curricular materials.
5), 4 ½ sheets (cut lengthwise) of white copy paper, 1 ½ sheet (cut lengthwise) of any color construction paper, Variety of crayons, colored pencils, and markers. Buildings are shifted off foundations. Layer the four pieces of white copy paper in one stack with one piece of construction paper on top for the cover.

[3] Mercalli's second scale, published in 1902, was also an adaptation of the Rossi–Forel scale, retaining the 10 degrees and expanding the descriptions of each degree. www.teachengineering.org/activities/view/cub_natdis_lesson03_activity3, Search curriculum by Common Core standards, Natural Disasters: Earthquakes, Volcanoes, Tornadoes & More. [12], In their 1993 compendium of historical seismicity in the United States,[13] Carl Stover and Jerry Coffman ignored Richter's revision, and assigned intensities according to their slightly modified interpretation of Wood and Neumann's 1931 scale,[14] effectively creating a new, but largely undocumented version of the scale. The two scales have different applications and measurement techniques. Felt indoors by many, outdoors by few during the day: At night, some are awakened. Felt quite noticeably by people indoors, especially on upper floors of buildings: Many people do not recognize it as an earthquake. Felt by nearly everyone; many awakened: Some dishes and windows are broken. [26], The MMI scale is not defined in terms of more rigorous, objectively quantifiable measurements such as shake amplitude, shake frequency, peak velocity, or peak acceleration.
These values can be displayed best using a contoured map of equal intensity, known as an isoseismal map. However, each earthquake has only one magnitude. The Richter scale vs. the Modified Mercalli Intensity scale. For the scientist whom the scale is named after, see, Estimating site intensity and its use in seismic hazard assessment, Their modifications were mainly to degrees IV and V, with VI contingent on reports of damage to man-made structures, and VII considering only "damage to buildings or other man-made structures". The contents of this digital library curriculum were developed under a grant from the Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education (FIPSE), U.S. Department of Education, and National Science Foundation GK-12 grant no. [11] Not wanting to have this intensity scale confused with the Richter magnitude scale he had developed, he proposed calling it the "modified Mercalli scale of 1956" (MM56). Understand why engineers develop rating scales for earthquakes. [17] Also, some of the original criteria of the most intense degrees (X and above), such as bent rails, ground fissures, landslides, etc., are "related less to the level of ground shaking than to the presence of ground conditions susceptible to spectacular failure". It may be helpful to put the scale up on the board and read it aloud with the students. Rating earthquakes helps engineers determine which ones are going to cause the most damage so they can warn people in advance. The Wood–Neumann scale was revised in 1956 by Charles Francis Richter and published in his influential textbook Elementary Seismology. Pairs Check/Sharing with the Community: Have students share their booklets with a partner or the person next to them. Lead a brief discussion around the topic of the Mercalli Scale, as described above. We use a grading scale in school when we get an A, B or C. Some schools use a numeric grading system for the same level of work, where an A is equal to a 4, a B to a 3, and so on. By rating earthquakes, engineers can predict which quakes are going to cause the most damage and warn humans about them.

Deeper earthquakes also have less interaction with the surface, and their energy is spread out across a larger volume. With improved engineering technology to predict the size and force of earthquakes, cities and communities have more time to prepare themselves from harm.

These are similar to ground motion-prediction equations for the estimation of instrumental strong-motion parameters such as peak ground acceleration. Any reusable equipment that is necessary to teach the activity is not included in this estimate; see the Materials List/Supplies for details. A summary of intensity prediction equations is available. The greater numbers of the scale are based on observed structural damage. Home Page Need Extra Help (8th) Need Extra Help (7th) Educational Videos Remind What is Mr. Jackson Doing?

Bridges are destroyed. Environmental Seismic Intensity scale (ESI), PHIVOLCS Earthquake Intensity Scale (PEIS), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Modified_Mercalli_intensity_scale&oldid=979797166, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Not felt except by very few under especially favorable conditions, Felt only by a few people at rest, especially on upper floors of buildings. An earthquake's magnitude, as measured by the Richter scale, tells you how much energy the quake released at its epicenter.

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