Dissolve the final product in a minimum amount (no more than 2-3 mL) of. So when the ferric chloride is added to the product, one can tell if the product mixture contains any of the starting material by the color of the solution. This was a white powder and had a melting point range of 134-135 degrees Celsius. This time the hydroxyl group of the salicylic acid acts as the nucleophile to attack the carbonyl group of the acetic anhydride and replace one of the acetyl groups. Ferric chloride forms highly colored complexes with phenolic compounds. Because both the aspirin solutions were yellow, there was not any unreacted starting material present in the product. During this semester, you will have an opportunity to isolate some pharmacologically active natural products and to synthesize other active compounds from suitable starting materials. As a control, add a few drops of 1% FeCl3 to water in a second beaker.
These carbonyl reactions are all equilibrium reactions which means it is impossible for the reaction to go to 100% completion. Analgesics are compounds used to reduce pain, antipyretics are compounds used to reduce fever. Once the reaction is complete, acid is added to the mixture to protonate the carboxylate ions to produce the acid. Make sure that the resulting solution is acidic (blue litmus paper) and that the aspirin has completely precipitated out. The ferric chloride test was used to compare the salicylic acid, crude aspirin, and purified aspirin. It was thin, short white crystals and had a melting point range or 154-155 degrees Celsius. One possible source of error is in the nature of the reaction of aspirin. Both the melting points of salicylic acid and aspirin were consistent with the literature values which are 159 degrees Celsius and 135 degrees Celsius respectively. After the addition of the ferric chloride, the salicylic acid solution turned purple, and both the aspirin solutions were yellow. Legal.

… Register now! The sample is dissolved in water, or a mixture of water and ethanol, and a few drops of dilute ferric chloride (FeCl3) solution is added. 1) Ferric Chloride Test The addition of ferric chloride to salicylic acid produces a specific color caused by the reaction of salicylic acid with aqueous ferric (Fe(H the -OH group on the salicylic acid together can form a complex with Fe(H an intense violet color. Ferric chloride, or iron (III) chloride will not react with aspirin. Introduction: The purpose of this lab was to learn how to use salicylic acid to make aspirin. In aspirin, the group which prevents the second bond from being formed.

The average tablet contains about 325 milligrams of acetylsalicylic acid with an inert binding material such as starch. If you have difficulty, look at the banana oil experiment.
In the case of quick qualitative detection of acetyl salicylic acid and salicylic acid a simple visual test will suffice.

Methyl Salicylate is a naturally occurring chemical that is obtained from winter green oil that can be used to synthesize Salicylic Acid. The salicylic acid was obtained with 76.5% yield so there are sources of product loss. Then the substituent that is the best leaving group leaves, and the carbonyl group is reformed. You can use some of the filtrate to rinse the Erlenmeyer flask if necessary. For more information contact us at info@libretexts.org or check out our status page at https://status.libretexts.org. Cool the solution to room temperature and then in a ice-bath. Clamp a side-arm flask to the ring stand, and connect a piece of rubber tubing to the side-arm. As an example using the chemical phenol itself: The ferric chloride test can be used to detect metabolites in urine in case of inborn error of metabolism such as phenylketonuria. The melting points of both the salicylic acid and aspirin were taken as other means to identify, and test the purity of the products. One possibility for loss of product could be during the acidification step. Formation of an iron-phenol complex with Fe(lll) gives a definite color ranging from red to violet, depending upon the particular phenol present. Connect the other end of the rubber tubing to an aspirator in the lab. For the reaction to go reasonably fast and to completion, sodium hydroxide is added in excess to ensure the maximum amount of methyl salicylate reacts. Into one test tube, add a crystal of salicylic acid. Allow the flask to cool to room temperature. Add a few drops of 1% FeCl3. Over history, many compounds obtained from nature have been used to cure ills or to produce an effect in humans. Another source of product loss was during the filtration of the product. Cool the mixture slightly in an ice bath until crystallization is completed. The two products synthesized in this lab also had their IR spectra and melting points taken for identification. A polymeric material, which is a polyester, is formed in this reaction. Why is it not necessary to measure the volume of acetic anhydride to two significant figures? This carbonyl group can undergo typical carbonyl addition-elimination reactions. Also, mix aspirin in water to use as a control; Observe color change, if any. Have questions or comments? The synthesis of the salicylic acid is done by creating the anion of the acid which is soluble in the aqueous solution. Solutions containing the phenolic group are dark purple and ones without are a yellow color. Ferric Chloride Test For Aspirin.

The spectrum showed a peak at 1717 cm-1 which indicated the ester carbonyl and a peak at 1687 cm-1 for the acid carbonyl. However, due to time constraints, refiltering could not happen. The carbonyl carbon is more electrophilic than the other carbons because the double bonded oxygen withdraws a great amount of the electron density making the carbon highly electropositive. Because it is impossible to fully precipitate compound out of a solution, a small amount will always be loss.

The LibreTexts libraries are Powered by MindTouch® and are supported by the Department of Education Open Textbook Pilot Project, the UC Davis Office of the Provost, the UC Davis Library, the California State University Affordable Learning Solutions Program, and Merlot. This is because the reduction of the products will cause more starting material to react to regain equilibrium. Phenols form a complex with ferric ions. Bythe addition of an excess of Fe +3 in some suitable form,such as ferric chloride, to a test solution complexes ofFe +3 will be formed. This spectrum showed a broad peak at 3220.11cm-1 which indicates that the product contained an –OH group. ferric chloride solution to each. There are also smaller peaks which indicate the other carbon-oxygen groups of the aspirin.

Collect the product by vacuum filtration and rinse out of the flask with a few milliliters of cold petroleum ether. The Merck Index, which is an encyclopedia of chemicals, drugs and biologicals, lists the following information under aspirin: acetylsalicylic acid; monoclinic tablets or needle-like crystals; mp 135 °C (rapid heating); is odorless, but in moist air it is gradually hydrolyzed into salicylic and acetic acids; one gram dissolves in 300 mL of water at 25 °C, in 100 mL of water at 37 °C, in 5 mL alcohol, in 17 mL chloroform. Place 2.0 g (0.015 mole) of salicylic acid in a 125-mL Erlenmeyer flask. In addition, various transformations of these and other compounds have led to even more medically useful compounds. Compounds such as phenylpyruvate increase in plasma and are excreted out via urine. 1.600g of aspirin was obtained after the second synthesis. It is then protonated to crash the salicylic acid out of solution. The crude product and the purified product can be tested using ferric chloride. [1] The bromine test is useful to confirm the result, although modern spectroscopic techniques (e.g. Aspirin is the most widely used over-the-counter drug in the world. The aspirin was obtained with 58.75%. Because both the aspirin solutions were yellow, there was not any unreacted starting material present in the product. Record the weight of the crude solid which probably contains water. Mix several drops or a few crystals of compound to be tested in a beaker or in a 200mm test tube. After the addition of the ferric chloride, the salicylic acid solution turned purple, and both the aspirin solutions were yellow. Compounds such as phenylpyruvate increase in plasma and are excreted out via urine. If not enough acid was added to protonate all the product, some will stay in the aqueous solution and will be lost. Since they were so small, some could have passed through the filter paper.

When the product is completely dry, weigh the product, determine its melting point (lit mp 135-136 °C) and calculate the percentage yield. NMR and IR spectroscopy) are far superior in determining the identity of the unknown. The ferric chloride test can be used to detect metabolites in urine in case of inborn error of metabolism such as phenylketonuria. Where the sample is insoluble in water, it may be dissolved in dichloromethane with a small amount of pyridine. Into another test tube, add a small amount of authentic aspirin. When the product is completely dry, weigh its weight, determine its melting point (lit mp 135 °C) and calculate the percentage yield of this recrystallized product.

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