", "China Epicenter of 1918 Flu Pandemic, Historian Says", "Reviewing the History of Pandemic Influenza: Understanding Patterns of Emergence and Transmission", "Transmissibility of 1918 pandemic influenza", "The most important lesson of the 1918 influenza pandemic: Tell the damn truth", "Summer Flu Outbreak of 1918 May Have Provided Partial Protection Against Lethal Fall Pandemic", "Secondary Bacterial Infections Associated with Influenza Pandemics", "Bacterial Pneumonia Caused Most Deaths in 1918 Influenza Pandemic", "Predominant Role of Bacterial Pneumonia as a Cause of Death in Pandemic Influenza: Implications for Pandemic Influenza Preparedness", "1918 Death Certificate for 10-year-old girl who died as a consequence of influenza in Lares, Puerto Rico", "Washington State Board of Health pessimistic about influenza pandemic in a report to the governor on January 1, 1919", "The effect of public health measures on the 1918 influenza pandemic in U.S. cities", "As the 1918 Flu Emerged, Cover-Up and Denial Helped It Spread", "Ten things you need to know about pandemic influenza (update of 14 October 2005)", "Historical Estimates of World Population", "Flu experts warn of need for pandemic plans", "What the history of pandemics tells us about coronavirus", "Estimation of potential global pandemic influenza mortality on the basis of vital registry data from the 1918–20 pandemic: a quantitative analysis", "Spanish Influenza in Japanese Armed Forces, 1918–1920", Looking Through Indonesia's History For Answers to Swine Flu, "İSPANYOL GRİBİNİN DÜNYA VE OSMANLI DEVLETİ ÜZERİNDEKİ ETKİLERİ", "1918 flu centenary: How to survive a pandemic", "1918–1920 – Influenza and Pneumonia Pandemic – Nationwide ~820,000–850,000 – Deadliest American Disasters and Large-Loss-of-Life Events", The Great Pandemic: The United States in 1918–1919, "The silent invader – Digital Collections – National Library of Medicine", "Flu Epidemic Hit Utah Hard in 1918, 1919", "The Great Pandemic of 1918: State by State", "A deadly virus rages throughout Canada at the end of the First World War", "A gripe espanhola no Brasil – Elísio Augusto de Medeiros e Silva, empresário, escritor e membro da AEILIJ", "Coronavirus: forgotten lessons of the Spanish flu pandemic", "South Africa bungled the Spanish flu in 1918. [159] However, some contemporary newspaper and post office reports, as well as reports from missionary doctors, suggest that the flu did penetrate the Chinese interior and that influenza was severe in at least some locations in the countryside of China. [40] From Freetown, the pandemic continued to spread through West Africa along the coast, rivers, and the colonial railways, and from railheads to more remote communities, while South Africa received it in September on ships bringing back members of the South African Native Labour Corps returning from France. The standard narrative maintains that the first cases broke out in a military camp in Kansas where few noticed the signs of the pandemic to come amid the ongoing war. Historians now believe that the fatal severity of the Spanish flu’s “second wave” was caused by a mutated virus spread by wartime troop movements …. In general, places that disregarded social distancing rules saw more influenza cases. And in-flu-enza.” (1918 children’s playground rhyme) The ‘Spanish Flu’ pandemic of 1918 was one of the greatest medical disasters of the 20th century. [4] A 2006 study in The Lancet also noted that Indian provinces had excess mortality rates ranging from 2.1% to 7.8%, stating: "Commentators at the time attributed this huge variation to differences in nutritional status and diurnal fluctuations in temperature.

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